Glossary

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ECTS-European Credit Transfer and Accumulation System-The European Credit Transfer and Accumulation System is a student-centred system based on the student workload required to achieve the objectives of a programme, objectives preferably specified in terms of the learning outcomes and competences to be acquired. It is a credit system which provides a way of measuring and comparing learning achievements and transferring them from one institution to another. The main tools used to make ECTS work and facilitate academic recognition are the information package, the learning agreement and the transcript of records. ECTS credits are quantitative values allocated to the educational components of a study programme (lectures, seminars, tutorials, private study, practicals, field work, placements, dissertation work, etc.) They reflect the quantity of work each course unit requires in relation to the total quantity of work necessary to complete a full year of academic study.
Source: SOCRATES ECTS documentation http://ec.europa.eu/education/programmes/socrates/ects/index_en.html

ECVET-European Credit transfer system for Vocational Education and Training. ECVET is a European system of accumulation and transfer of credits designed for vocational education and training in Europe. It enables the attesting and recording of the learning achievement/learning outcomes of an individual engaged in a learning pathway leading to a qualification, a vocational diploma or certificate. It enables the documentation, validation and recognition of achieved learning outcomes acquired abroad, in both formal VET or in non-formal contexts. It is centred on the individual, based on the validation and the accumulation of his/her learning outcomes, defined in terms of the knowledge, skills and competences necessary for achieving a qualification. ECVET is a system designed to operate at the European level, interfacing with national systems and arrangements for credit accumulation and transfer. Within ECVET, the key components have been identified as units and modules. A unit denotes the smallest part of the curriculum, a module denotes the smallest part of a learning pathway.
Source: ECVET Technical Specifications, Brussels, EAC/A3/Mar. 28/06/05

e-learning-The delivery of content via all electronic media, including the internet, intranets, extranets, satellite, broadcast, video, interactive TV, and CD Rom. E-learning encompasses all learning undertaken, whether formal or informal, through electronic delivery.
Source: EU E-learning portal http://www.elearningeuropa.info/index.php?page=glossary&menuzone=1

entry level-Minimum standards set for acceptance onto a course.

entry requirement-Minimum requirements of certification/learning/prior experience needed for entry to a course/training.

episodic learning activities-Series of learning activities which are not sequential, which may not form part of the regular course/curriculum, often arising out of previously unidentified gaps/needs.

ethics-Idea, concept, moral belief that influences the behaviour, attitudes and philosophy of a group of people, Attitudes to animal welfare are now routinely included in issues affecting aquaculture.

EUROPASS-The Europass label brings together five transparency documents that cover qualifications and competences in a lifelong learning perspective:i) the Europass CV; ii) Europass Portfolio of Languages; iii) Europass Mobility (mobility experiences for learning purposes); iv) Europass Diploma Supplement qualifications in higher education); v) Europass Certificate Supplement (qualifications in vocational training).
Source: EUROPASS documentation http://ec.europa.eu/education/programmes/europass/index_en.html

European Higher Education Area (EHEA)-The construction by 2010 of the European Higher Education Area (where students and staff may move freely and have their qualifications recognized) is a major aim of the Bologna Process. The EHEA is structured around three cycles, with additional provision for a short cycle within the first cycle. The Dublin descriptors have been adopted as the cycle descriptors. The overarching framework of qualifications, the agreed set of European standards and guidelines for quality assurance and the recognition of degrees and periods of study are key characteristics of the structure of the EHEA.
Source: Bergen Ministers' Meeting Glossary http://www.bologna-bergen2005.no/

European Language Portfolio-Comes in three parts: the Language Passport, the Language Biography and the Dossier. The passport section gives an overview of the individuals' proficiency in different languages at a given point in time, defined in terms of skills and the common reference levels in the Common European Framework. It records formal qualifications as well as partial and specific competences.
Source: EUROPASS documentation http://ec.europa.eu/education/programmes/europass/index_en.html

European Research Area (ERA) ACRO-The European Research Area, to be in position by 2010, aims to promote the common use of scientific resources, the creation of jobs on a long-term basis and to stimulate competition in Europe.

evaluation-A systematic and critical analysis leading to judgments and/or recommendations regarding the quality of a higher education institution or programme.
Source: Bergen Ministers' Meeting Glossary http://www.bologna-bergen2005.no/

exemption-Agreed recognition of qualifications/learning allowing credit in another course.

experiential learning-Learning acquired through workplace or other previous experience.

externality-A term used to denote external evaluation of courses by external inspectors or academic peers. It is increasingly recognised as an essential part of quality assurance procedures.